The separate peace treaty between the central powers and Romania was signed in Bucharest on May 7, 1918. The agreement was not in force for a long time, it only had one (more) lasting result: the unification of Romania and Bessarabia was recognized by Germany and its three allies, including the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. Pesti Napló wrote in vein after the execution: “today we shall be glad that the people of the Hungarian border could go to sleep in peace in Székelyföld and Saxon towns”.
When it comes to the disintegration of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, in our region, among the main initiators, usually the activities of two Czech politicians, Masaryk and Beneš are pointed out. In Hungarian historical consciousness, the names of some Serbian, Romanian, Slovakian or Croatian contemporary politicians (Trumbić, Pašić, Štefánik, Braţianu) may also be recalled. However, the role of Slovenes is almost completely forgotten.
It all started like a bar fight by Jenő Rejtő: the other hit back. In April 1918, the Foreign Minister of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy came into a debate confuting each other with the French Prime Minister, Clemenceau, which made it clear that Czernin had made a fatal mistake. He accused France of sticking to Alsace-Lorraine and refusing to accept peace for this reason.
140-150 thousand soldiers of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy were killed, imprisoned or wounded senselessly in the days after June 15, 1918, in northern Italy along Piave. The last attack of the Austro-Hungarian army in the World War was broken down for several reasons: one of the main factors was the disintegration of the hinterland.
On January 8, 1918, US President Woodrow Wilson presented the principles of postwar settlement in his congressional speech. The USA entered the First World War only in 1917, and thereby Wilson partly also tried to convince the Americans that the United States was fighting for noble purposes. However, only a few of the 14 points of Wilson were implemented and, even so, they were not used for too noble purposes.
In Pesti Napló‘s issue of January 23, 1917, a brief statement reported that in early February a three-member delegation would travel to Bucharest to represent the “centre of interest in Romania” to discuss the representation of Hungarian “economic interests” with the competent authorities. The Romanian capital was occupied by the central powers in December 9, 1916, the occupying authorities started their operation at the end of the year, thereby the travel seemed to happen at the right time. In fact, however, the occupation of Romania clearly demonstrated the different weight of Germany and Austria-Hungary.
Franz Joseph died 100 years ago on November 21, 1916. In memory of his death we started a 4 part article series, in which we look at the life and ruling of the Emperor and King from different perspectives. This third part talks mainly about the personality of the Emperor.