"Schwarzer Tag des deutschen Heeres",  the Black Day of the German Army – this is how Erich Ludendorff, (one of) the supreme leader(s) of the empire characterised 8 August 1918. And this day was only the beginning of the series of attacks called Hundred Days Offensive in German military history launched by the Entente that decided the First World War between August 8 and November 11 in 1918. This latter day was the date of signing the capitulation in Compiègne and of the end of the war.    read more...
The separate peace treaty between the central powers and Romania was signed in Bucharest on May 7, 1918. The agreement was not in force for a long time, it only had one (more) lasting result: the unification of Romania and Bessarabia was recognized by Germany and its three allies, including the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. Pesti Napló wrote in vein after the execution: "today we shall be glad that the people of the Hungarian border could go to sleep in peace in Székelyföld and Saxon towns". read more...
Bulgaria collapsed at the end of September 1918 – this opened the Balkan front for progressing Entente troops. The Bulgarians concluded armistice and left the First World War, which made the loss of the war clear for the German leadership as well. However, the fall of the German Chancellor, Hertling was only the beginning of political changes that took place in central powers.  read more...
The Monarchy's authorities were surprised that in early 1918, before the separate peace with the Bolsheviks, more and more Austrian-Hungarian prisoners of war escaped over the Front and tried to come home. Because of internal social tensions, authorities in Vienna and Budapest took various precautionary measures. The Hungarian Minister of Defence justified why the prisoners of war are placed into a four-week "moral quarantine" after the health care quarantine with an egregious statement:  to "transform them into humans". In fact, authorities were afraid of the spread of Bolshevik ideology - but they could not prevent it: several future leaders of the Hungarian Soviet Republic had been Russian prisoners of war.  read more...
Autumn brought a terrible pandemic for Budapest and the country in 1918. It was the Spanish flu, upon the outbreak of which, in June a part og the Hungarian press made a poor out with their fake news, with belittling the danger, but Pesti Hírlap still lied to their readers even in the most severe moments of the pandemic, in autumn. The responsibility of the government, the capital and the public health authorities is just as severe: they were unable to solve the absence of doctors and medicine and the lack of organization also prevented them from coping with the pandemic, which mainly decimated the population of the back-country, and especially lively young adults from September 1918.  read more...
The first crocheting artefacts originated from the 16th century, although it is most likely that the hobby was developed in the Stone ages. The now common “looping in the air” style came into general use in the 18th century and in the 1800’s, crochet-work drawings read more...
Isle of Man is a self-governing British Crown dependency, with its own currency, own law system and government. Even before the First World War, the island, located in the Irish Sea was a popular tourist destination. In 1913 663.000 visitors were registered on the island.  read more...
From the beginning of the war the press constantly reported about the social engagement of the hinterland. War Hospitals were created and emergency funds were raised by parties and charities to support the disabled and families left without manpower. When winter came they collected packs for soldiers on the Front: boots, warm clothes and consumer goods such as cigarettes. At Christmas time, a movement put standard Christmas packages together to be sent to the Front. It seemed that the country stood behind the Front as one.  read more...
The massive size of the World War and making the necessary sacrifices needed for its operations meant that the state influenced and took control over the economy and society like never before. However there were unintended consequences in every war faring country. read more...
Saltpetre or potassium nitrate is an inorganic compound of potassium. It is used as an oxidizer in black powder. Black powder (gunpowder) is a mixture of sulphur, charcoal, potassium nitrate (saltpetre). The charcoal and the sulphur act like fuels and the saltpetre acts like oxidizer. read more...
On October 11, 1914 „with King Charles dies the eager apostle of neutrality as well” wrote the paper, Az Est (The Evening) about Karl Eitel Friedrich Zephyrinus Ludwig von Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, the first king of the modern Romanian state. read more...
At the beginning of the war the press described the army as some easy, relaxed but also heroic and masculine world. The soldiers’ tales of woes became obvious much later and the important moments of the warfare could only appear in an idiomatic aspect in public. read more...