Central powers signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Russia on March 3, 1918. Russia lost 780 thousand square kilometres of land and 56 million inhabitants, but made peace temporarily. This supported the consolidation of Bolshevik rule. The Germans won in the short term, but the Bolsheviks strengthened in the long run – for a price though: Brest-Litovsk could also be a symbol of breaking up with the West, the Entente. read more...
On January 8, 1918, US President Woodrow Wilson presented the principles of postwar settlement in his congressional speech. The USA entered the First World War only in 1917,  and thereby Wilson partly also tried to convince the Americans that the United States was fighting for noble purposes. However, only a few of the 14 points of Wilson were implemented and, even so, they were not used for too noble purposes.   read more...
International Women's Day was not always held on March 8, traditions of this this modern-day celebration are extremely complicated. For example, in Hungary, in the last three years of the First World War, celebrations took place on different dates, one of the programmes was even organized on 1 April. read more...
From Soviet times, the birthday of the Red Army was celebrated on February 23, though the first troops started to organize at the end of January 1918. The first military successes were seen at the end of February, when the Soviet-Russian army stopped the advancing Germans before they reached Petersburg. Many of the first commanders of the Red Army died in horrible circumstances – they were not killed by the enemy, but by the system that gained power with their help. read more...
In the last months of the First World War, there was little positive news and little permanent value generated in Hungary. However, the Museum of Fine Arts still held notable exhibitions and employed significant experts, one of whom was appointed to be a (subordinate) director in March 1918, even during these times.  read more...
At the turn of 1917-1918, the relationship between the Hungarian government and the press became extremely frozen. Vilmos Vázsonyi, who criticized the government before the World War both as an opposition politician and a lawyer regarding (among others) press freedom,  especially the new press law adopted in the spring of 1914, now became the primary target of journalists as Justice Minister. In the following article, we will look at how the world could turn so huge that Vázsonyi, the champion of press freedom, became the suppressor thereof in half a year. read more...
The International Red Cross was established in the 19th century: seeing the horrors of the Solferino Battle in 1859, Henri Dunant (1828-1910), a Swiss businessman, decided to establish an aid organization consisting of volunteers who tend the wounded during the war. read more...
According to today's "half-official" interpretation in Hungary, on November 7, 1917, it was not a revolution, but a coup in Russia, performed by Lenin as an agent for the Germans, acting against his home country, completely in the interest of German war aims, infecting Russia as a virus.  read more...
"I came to Lake Balaton for a week / To sail and sunbathe / When a woman sat down beside me to play cards / That's what happened in Lelle." Though we are sure such romances took place on the shore of the Hungarian sea during the war too, people wishing to relax could not spend their time as carelessly at the lake as in happy times of peace – being on a holiday or not, holidaymakers were also affected by everyday challenges.  read more...
The world's most famous female spy, Mata Hari was killed on October 15, 1917, in the fortress of Vincennes near Paris – since then she has been legitimately pronounced to be innocent: she was not the so-called H-21 spy who delivered French military secrets to German officers. read more...
Az Est summarized the political relations of the House of Representatives of the Austrian part of the Empire – let us admit that it was difficult to follow for mere mortals already at that time. The author, being aware of politics in Vienna, told only about the House of Representatives (in German: Abgeordnetenhaus), read more...
August of 1914 was characterised by war enthusiasm – everyone should make their own mind up on whether or not it was induced by the propaganda. Nevertheless, soldiers set off to the front in wagons displaying "Long Live the King", covered in flowers by the similarly enthusiastic ladies who bid them farewell. The flowers wilted, individual enthusiasm faded, but war propaganda still sought to keep it at least institutionally alive. read more...