The outbreak of the first world war separates the history of  Galilei Kör (Galilei Circle) (1908–1919), being one of the most significant student associations in the history of Hungary, made up of atheist-free thinking young people, into two eras. While the first, "big" era was characterized by anti-clericalism, the "small" era after 1914 was centred on anti-militarism. However, read more...
The monument of Hindenburg in Berlin
We have closed the second part of our review with the description of the religious upheaval during the First World War. As a strange contradiction, the Pope's prestige diminished simultaneously. It was due to the fact that Pope Benedict XV (1914-1922) tried to stay neutral, but as the only result, in the absence of statements supporting one or the other side, neither power block felt the support of the Holy Father: the French called him the "German" Pope, while the German called him the "French" Pope. read more...
Understanding the Great War
We have closed our review with the list of taboos from World War I, like homosexual relations or the suicide of front soldiers. Authors of the book entitled 1914-1918, Understanding the Great War, Stéphane Audoin-Rouzeau and Annette Becker also pointed out how violence against civilians was ousted from the memory of the First World War: "The memory of the Great War kept almost exclusively the violence where the victims were soldiers, and forgot violent acts against the unarmed population. And almost completely the opposite happened with World War II." read more...
Understanding the Great War
If we look at the hundred-year-old historiography of World War I, we can conclude that it was at first characterised by political historical and diplomatic historical approaches, and later historians turned to the society, followed by the language-related and cultural historical turn. In other words: the first examined how the front was established; the second scrutinized how the soldier got to the front; while the third perspective studied how the front soldier looked at the battlefield and how he felt there. The book entitled 1914–1918, Understanding the Great War summarized the latest results and approaches of First World War researches. read more...
Soldiers in the Franz Joseph Barracks, 1918 (Fortepan_19421)
Though the above quote was published in the weekly paper Vasárnapi Újság in September 1914, it did not reflect the personal opinion of the journalist, but referenced the contents of the legal regulation adopted in 1913, in the previous year, by the Parliament. The 1913 Act was in fact the late adoption of the international regulation amended in 1907, accepted in the first Hague Peace Conference in 1899, recording the rights of prisoners of war. The codification of the regulation meant, however, that upon a potential war, the Hungarian government shall ensure the rights of prisoners of war stationed in the country and their adequate care. read more...
Disabled soldiers (Fortepan)
For the third year of the war, hundreds of thousands of soldiers were killed on the battlefields, while injuries sustained in the battles left tens of thousands disabled. Family heads who died on the front left behind war widows and orphans in the hinterland. Significant tasks of the wartime social policy included solving the provision, financial aid and care of these social groups, mostly assumed by the state. While the primary aim of the first years of war was to solve the care and aid of war veterans – at that time war orphans were mostly cared for by orphans' courts, which operated in peacetime as well –, by 1917, the situation had become unsustainable, military care required a new structure. read more...
Front Theatre
"I believe we have the same views on this point. / Most importantly, we shall have a front theatre on the front. / I will not ruin my talent at home any more, / I shed my arts on the holy altar of my country. / And, since that's what the battlefield requires most, / I shall get some sets of pike-grey vests. / I am not given any room at home as a rival, / I will be then a primadonna on the battlefield. / The Hungarian country wanted a front theatre, / I will be the singing lark of front theatres, / Zsazsa, the singing lark." read more...
"Budapesti Torna-Club"
It is a sad reality that these two leading associations of Hungarian football face each other in opposition as fierce enemies today. Flames of hatred shoot high and threaten the entire building of football with destruction” – wrote the Budapesti Hírlap in January 1917. The rivalry of MTK and FTC raised Hungarian football, but but after less than a decade it seemed to burn it down. Stadium battle, the century's transfer scandal and the hostile citizen interned upon the outbreak of the world war, Jimmy Hogan, who taught the Hungarians to play football. Second part. read more...
The launch of the Millenáris sports ground in 1896 (Magyar Nemzet)
It is a sad reality that these two leading associations of Hungarian football face each other in opposition as fierce enemies today. Flames of hatred shoot high and threaten the entire building of football with destruction” – wrote the Budapesti Hírlap in January 1917. The rivalry of MTK and FTC raised Hungarian football, but after less than a decade it seemed to burn it down. Stadium battle, the century's transfer scandal and the hostile citizen interned upon the outbreak of the world war, Jimmy Hogan, who taught the Hungarians to play football. First part. read more...
Petroleum field at Moreni (Wikipedia)
In Pesti Napló's issue of January 23, 1917, a brief statement reported that in early February a three-member delegation would travel to Bucharest to represent the "centre of interest in Romania" to discuss the representation of Hungarian "economic interests" with the competent authorities. The Romanian capital was occupied by the central powers in December 9, 1916, the occupying authorities started their operation at the end of the year, thereby the travel seemed to happen at the right time. In fact, however, the occupation of Romania clearly demonstrated the different weight of Germany and Austria-Hungary. read more...
Grigory Rasputin (wikipedia)
"The tale of the corpse found on the banks of the Neva River is only theatrical claptrap, aimed at hiding the figure of Rasputin from the public for a while." – wrote Az Est on January 9, 1917 referencing a Swedish paper (Nya Dagligt Allehanda). It was on January 4 that the Hungarian press reported for the first time on the death of Grigori Rasputin, the Russian tsar's repository, based on information from various – Italian, English, Swedish, German – papers. It was written right away that the perpetrator must have been Prince Felix Jusupov, one of the richest aristocrats in Russia, the husband of the zcar's niece. read more...
The portrait of Lajos Kassák (by József Nemes Lampérth, wikipedia)
Lajos Kassák started his paper, the Hungarian avant-garde’s most important workshop, the Ma (1916–1925) a hundred years ago. But how was the Hungarian Left Wing’s relationship with Kassak’s efforts, how well he, the “working class poet”, was accepted in the labour movement? Kassák were forcing his own art shock therapy on an era when most of the Népszava’s readers found even Endre Ady’s poetry inexplicable. During the Council Republic’s 133 days the poet finally could have free range, but instead his work was banned.  Part II. read more...