"Schwarzer Tag des deutschen Heeres",  the Black Day of the German Army – this is how Erich Ludendorff, (one of) the supreme leader(s) of the empire characterised 8 August 1918. And this day was only the beginning of the series of attacks called Hundred Days Offensive in German military history launched by the Entente that decided the First World War between August 8 and November 11 in 1918. This latter day was the date of signing the capitulation in Compiègne and of the end of the war.    read more...
The separate peace treaty between the central powers and Romania was signed in Bucharest on May 7, 1918. The agreement was not in force for a long time, it only had one (more) lasting result: the unification of Romania and Bessarabia was recognized by Germany and its three allies, including the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. Pesti Napló wrote in vein after the execution: "today we shall be glad that the people of the Hungarian border could go to sleep in peace in Székelyföld and Saxon towns". read more...
Bulgaria collapsed at the end of September 1918 – this opened the Balkan front for progressing Entente troops. The Bulgarians concluded armistice and left the First World War, which made the loss of the war clear for the German leadership as well. However, the fall of the German Chancellor, Hertling was only the beginning of political changes that took place in central powers.  read more...
The Monarchy's authorities were surprised that in early 1918, before the separate peace with the Bolsheviks, more and more Austrian-Hungarian prisoners of war escaped over the Front and tried to come home. Because of internal social tensions, authorities in Vienna and Budapest took various precautionary measures. The Hungarian Minister of Defence justified why the prisoners of war are placed into a four-week "moral quarantine" after the health care quarantine with an egregious statement:  to "transform them into humans". In fact, authorities were afraid of the spread of Bolshevik ideology - but they could not prevent it: several future leaders of the Hungarian Soviet Republic had been Russian prisoners of war.  read more...
Autumn brought a terrible pandemic for Budapest and the country in 1918. It was the Spanish flu, upon the outbreak of which, in June a part og the Hungarian press made a poor out with their fake news, with belittling the danger, but Pesti Hírlap still lied to their readers even in the most severe moments of the pandemic, in autumn. The responsibility of the government, the capital and the public health authorities is just as severe: they were unable to solve the absence of doctors and medicine and the lack of organization also prevented them from coping with the pandemic, which mainly decimated the population of the back-country, and especially lively young adults from September 1918.  read more...
South of Esztergom by the Kis-Strazsa hill, at an old broken glasshouse next to an army training ground, a camp was established for those foreigners who were on Hungarian land when war broke out between their country and the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. read more...
The war started with the hope of winning and in mid-August the army of the Monarchy was actually succeeding against the Russians. However, the forces were unbalanced and by September, Hungary was forced to surrender Lemberg/Lvov in East Galicia and Przemyśl read more...
The German troops blasted Belgium on August 4, 1914, where the Belgian opposition was stronger than expected. In these battles, approximately 5,000 German soldiers were killed. (The later battles’ casualties dwarfed this number, but this number was shocking for the beginning of the war.) read more...
Under the Peking Protocol of 1901, the Kiautschou protective belt became a German leased territory. On this land (the size of which was over 500 km²), stood Tsingtao, the only German naval port in East Asia that was castellated between 1903 and 1911. The squadron read more...
In 1914, the United States completed its largest engineering project to date and opened the Panama Canal. France began work on the canal, but had to stop many times due to engineering and other serious problems. The United States took over the project in 1904. read more...
The first trains carrying injured soldiers arrived from the front in August. This brought home the horror of the war to the people living in Hinterland. Propaganda regarding the Hungarian soldiers’ bravery could no longer hide the horrors of the war. At the end of September, read more...
The public’s belief that the war would end quickly resulted in a supply shortage occurring sooner than expected. In the fall, collections for winter army equipment had already been made and articles had even been posted in the newspapers about it. The problem of what to do read more...