Central powers signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Russia on March 3, 1918. Russia lost 780 thousand square kilometres of land and 56 million inhabitants, but made peace temporarily. This supported the consolidation of Bolshevik rule. The Germans won in the short term, but the Bolsheviks strengthened in the long run – for a price though: Brest-Litovsk could also be a symbol of breaking up with the West, the Entente. read more...
On January 8, 1918, US President Woodrow Wilson presented the principles of postwar settlement in his congressional speech. The USA entered the First World War only in 1917,  and thereby Wilson partly also tried to convince the Americans that the United States was fighting for noble purposes. However, only a few of the 14 points of Wilson were implemented and, even so, they were not used for too noble purposes.   read more...
International Women's Day was not always held on March 8, traditions of this this modern-day celebration are extremely complicated. For example, in Hungary, in the last three years of the First World War, celebrations took place on different dates, one of the programmes was even organized on 1 April. read more...
From Soviet times, the birthday of the Red Army was celebrated on February 23, though the first troops started to organize at the end of January 1918. The first military successes were seen at the end of February, when the Soviet-Russian army stopped the advancing Germans before they reached Petersburg. Many of the first commanders of the Red Army died in horrible circumstances – they were not killed by the enemy, but by the system that gained power with their help. read more...
In the last months of the First World War, there was little positive news and little permanent value generated in Hungary. However, the Museum of Fine Arts still held notable exhibitions and employed significant experts, one of whom was appointed to be a (subordinate) director in March 1918, even during these times.  read more...
postcard_about_the_struggles_of_bukovina
The Army of the Monarchy started an act of despair in January 1915. By the end of 1914, the Russian Army had overrun most parts of Galicia, blockaded the Przemyśl fort, and broke into Hungary. Although the fort succeeded in breaking free of the Russian army, by the beginning of 1915 they were under attack again and their situation had worsened. read more...
September 1914. German East Africa, the biggest colony of the German Empire (now Tanzania). A lone sailor, an English employee of the Belgian mining company, arrives on his old and rusty steamboat, The African Queen, to see the British missionary along the Ulanga river. read more...
Due to supplies being dispatched to the army, there was a decrease in goods available on the civilian marketplace. This meant prices were raised to ensure suppliers’ income remained the same. The government was forced to regulate prices and later took requisitions. They hoped that food supplies would still be cheap enough for everyone. read more...
Fridtjof Nansen
Fridtjof Nansen is a polar explorer and oceanographer. His expedition in 1888-1889 to Greenland and in 1893-1896 to the North Pole earned his home country Norway international scientific fame. Nansen, who graduated college as a zoologist, studied the lifestyle of Eskimos as well as Greenland’s nature. read more...
On the August 16, 1914, the Home Secretary arranged an edict to decrease the consumption of beef. The law was forwarded to the sub-prefects and mayors, and placed importance on the army’s meal above civil interest. read more...
The life of a war correspondent is dangerous. The genre itself was born in the Crimea war in the 1850’s: by the mid-19th century mankind wanted the war brought into their homes, so the media began reporting from the front lines. By the beginning of the First World War, this worked smoothly. read more...
From the beginning of the War, letters were flowing in to the editorial room of the Pesti Hírlap from soldiers on the front lines and, later, in prison.  The paper regularly published these. Many readers were interested in these letters because being a prisoner of the war in Russia seemed like an exotic holiday. read more...