The outbreak of the first world war separates the history of  Galilei Kör (Galilei Circle) (1908–1919), being one of the most significant student associations in the history of Hungary, made up of atheist-free thinking young people, into two eras. While the first, "big" era was characterized by anti-clericalism, the "small" era after 1914 was centred on anti-militarism. However, read more...
The monument of Hindenburg in Berlin
We have closed the second part of our review with the description of the religious upheaval during the First World War. As a strange contradiction, the Pope's prestige diminished simultaneously. It was due to the fact that Pope Benedict XV (1914-1922) tried to stay neutral, but as the only result, in the absence of statements supporting one or the other side, neither power block felt the support of the Holy Father: the French called him the "German" Pope, while the German called him the "French" Pope. read more...
Understanding the Great War
We have closed our review with the list of taboos from World War I, like homosexual relations or the suicide of front soldiers. Authors of the book entitled 1914-1918, Understanding the Great War, Stéphane Audoin-Rouzeau and Annette Becker also pointed out how violence against civilians was ousted from the memory of the First World War: "The memory of the Great War kept almost exclusively the violence where the victims were soldiers, and forgot violent acts against the unarmed population. And almost completely the opposite happened with World War II." read more...
Understanding the Great War
If we look at the hundred-year-old historiography of World War I, we can conclude that it was at first characterised by political historical and diplomatic historical approaches, and later historians turned to the society, followed by the language-related and cultural historical turn. In other words: the first examined how the front was established; the second scrutinized how the soldier got to the front; while the third perspective studied how the front soldier looked at the battlefield and how he felt there. The book entitled 1914–1918, Understanding the Great War summarized the latest results and approaches of First World War researches. read more...
Soldiers in the Franz Joseph Barracks, 1918 (Fortepan_19421)
Though the above quote was published in the weekly paper Vasárnapi Újság in September 1914, it did not reflect the personal opinion of the journalist, but referenced the contents of the legal regulation adopted in 1913, in the previous year, by the Parliament. The 1913 Act was in fact the late adoption of the international regulation amended in 1907, accepted in the first Hague Peace Conference in 1899, recording the rights of prisoners of war. The codification of the regulation meant, however, that upon a potential war, the Hungarian government shall ensure the rights of prisoners of war stationed in the country and their adequate care. read more...
At the beginning of the war the press described the army as some easy, relaxed but also heroic and masculine world. The soldiers’ tales of woes became obvious much later and the important moments of the warfare could only appear in an idiomatic aspect in public. read more...
Világ (World) reported on a big – and regarding the propaganda about the domination of the Central Powers, understandable – success on December 4, 1914.: after about four months of battles and offensives in November by the 5th And 6th troops, the victory was near on the South Front since the forces of the Monarchy took Belgrade, „the last Serbian hope” on December 2, 1914.  read more...
The international scientific conference ’Memory and Memorialization of WWI in East Central Europe: Past and Present’ of the Institute of Political History focused on the questions of historiography, history teaching and collective memory. read more...
“He is like to be born in 1916, he would never have to wage war” – this sentence is told in the Italian film The Great War about a one-year old child. This proved to be naive hope. Anno Movie Club screened and discussed the 1959 film of Mario Monicelli. read more...
The British documentary film about The battle of the Somme was a real blockbuster, but it did not mention the fact that 400 thousand British, 200 thousand French and 450 German soldiers died to push the frontline 5 kilometres further. “Greeting cards” thrown with bombs and pen campaign in London against the coward. Geoffrey Malins’ and John McDowwell’s silent film in the Anno Movie Club. read more...
Cowardice, denial of commands, desertion were the reasons of execution of several thousand soldiers by their own side in WWI. The French once decimated one of their units, but this ruthless means of disciplining troops was most often applied in the Monarchy. The Anno Movie Club presented Stanley Kubrick’s The Paths of Glory.  read more...
The Battle of Gallipoli contributed to the birth of the Australian, New-Zealand and the Turkish nation. The Anno Movie Club screened Peter Weir’s Gallipoli. read more...