The outbreak of the first world war separates the history of  Galilei Kör (Galilei Circle) (1908–1919), being one of the most significant student associations in the history of Hungary, made up of atheist-free thinking young people, into two eras. While the first, "big" era was characterized by anti-clericalism, the "small" era after 1914 was centred on anti-militarism. However, read more...
The monument of Hindenburg in Berlin
We have closed the second part of our review with the description of the religious upheaval during the First World War. As a strange contradiction, the Pope's prestige diminished simultaneously. It was due to the fact that Pope Benedict XV (1914-1922) tried to stay neutral, but as the only result, in the absence of statements supporting one or the other side, neither power block felt the support of the Holy Father: the French called him the "German" Pope, while the German called him the "French" Pope. read more...
Understanding the Great War
We have closed our review with the list of taboos from World War I, like homosexual relations or the suicide of front soldiers. Authors of the book entitled 1914-1918, Understanding the Great War, Stéphane Audoin-Rouzeau and Annette Becker also pointed out how violence against civilians was ousted from the memory of the First World War: "The memory of the Great War kept almost exclusively the violence where the victims were soldiers, and forgot violent acts against the unarmed population. And almost completely the opposite happened with World War II." read more...
Understanding the Great War
If we look at the hundred-year-old historiography of World War I, we can conclude that it was at first characterised by political historical and diplomatic historical approaches, and later historians turned to the society, followed by the language-related and cultural historical turn. In other words: the first examined how the front was established; the second scrutinized how the soldier got to the front; while the third perspective studied how the front soldier looked at the battlefield and how he felt there. The book entitled 1914–1918, Understanding the Great War summarized the latest results and approaches of First World War researches. read more...
Soldiers in the Franz Joseph Barracks, 1918 (Fortepan_19421)
Though the above quote was published in the weekly paper Vasárnapi Újság in September 1914, it did not reflect the personal opinion of the journalist, but referenced the contents of the legal regulation adopted in 1913, in the previous year, by the Parliament. The 1913 Act was in fact the late adoption of the international regulation amended in 1907, accepted in the first Hague Peace Conference in 1899, recording the rights of prisoners of war. The codification of the regulation meant, however, that upon a potential war, the Hungarian government shall ensure the rights of prisoners of war stationed in the country and their adequate care. read more...
Want-ad from "Az Est" (1917)
Though the above title was partly borrowed from a cookbook by Judit Stahl, the recipes described below are not fun dishes to prepare in twenty minutes, but rather war recipes – and their preparation, just like their consumption, was much more time-consuming. The issue of food supply, the shrinking of consumption and the shortage of goods were cardinal problems during war years, therefore we have discussed this topic in several articles on our website. Before dealing with the specific dishes and household tricks, let us summarize again the most significant ones. read more...
The portrait of Ludwik Zamenhof (wikipedia)
Az Est briefly informed its readers that Lajos Zamenhof eye surgeon, the founder of the Esperanto language died in April 1917. He was born in Białystok, in Northern Poland, which belonged to the Russian Empire in the long 19th century. Zamenhof had lived in Warsaw – which was also attached to Russia upon the division of Poland at the end of the 18th century – with some interruptions since 1873, had a praxis as an eye surgeon, which made it hardly possible to make ends meet. According to his own words, before 1901, when he tried to operate an office several times in the countryside – in Polish and Russian small towns –, he needed his father-in-law's financial support. read more...