Emperor Franz Josef of Austria
Franz Joseph died 100 years ago on November 21, 1916. In memory of his death we started a 4 parts article series, in which we look at the life and ruling of the Emperor and King from different perspectives. In this last part we talk about how the press reported on his death and how were the necrologies.  read more...
Elisabeth and Franz Joseph
Franz Joseph died 100 years ago on November 21, 1916. In memory of his death we started a 4 part article series, in which we look at the life and ruling of the Emperor and King from different perspectives. This second part talks about the Emperor and his women. read more...
Franz Joseph, the Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary, Croatia and Bohemia
Franz Joseph died 100 years ago on November 21, 1916. In memory of his death we started a 4 parts article series, in which we look at the life and ruling of the Emperor and King from different perspectives. The theme of the first part is the Kaiser and his multinational empire, aka the minority issues. read more...
Berlin, 1914 (de.m.wikipedia.org)
In the first part of our article we summarised how food supply worked in the Hinterland during the First World War. In 1914 it was still somewhat normal, but due to the long lasting war, the agricultural production had a serious setback, economical relationships between countries froze and the products were badly divided. As a result, from the end of 1916, these all led to food shortages, strikes and in some parts of the country hunger. But it was always important to feed the troops: soldiers were treated like the smallest kid in the family – they got the biggest bite. So what exactly did this mean?   read more...
1916 – the last year of the “old era” (Conference in the Institute of Political History, 05-10-2016)
On November 21, 1916 Franz Josef died and according to the trope, with his departure an era ended. Lajos Zilahy wrote, the death of the emperor in the middle of the War was “as if a rusty metal door of a dark cellar closed.” But was it really like this? Partly based on the Political History Institute’s conference on “1916 – The last year of the old era and the old Hungary?” I shall sum up what were the most significant changes of possibly the bloodiest year of the War from a military, economic, social and cultural point of view, and whether it was ground-breaking or not. read more...
Mihály Biró: The beasts!
„His two beautiful posters, he painted, were confiscated during the fight against the press law, because he again painted the red man of the Népszava, this time in chains, as the symbol of light, knowledge, the brave fight against the class domination and free speech. The chains are kept by three gendarmes and a policeman pointing their bayonets at him, ready to thrust. The prosecutor, or rather a clerk afraid to loose his job saw in this poster. During the confiscation many of our best fine artists professed their thoughts in the Nepszava and called the proceedings as an art scandal and an act of barbarism. But this didn’t stop the attacks on the freedom of art. Our comrade was committed for trial and on Thursday, the Nepszava’s chained red man, was put on the dock.” (June 19, 1914 Népszava) read more...
The possibility of the peaceful settlement between the US and Mexico has disappeared – reported the Az Est at the end of June 1916. The report wrote about the battle of Carrizali where 300 US cavalrymen were closed in by the Mexican army and outnumbered them. While the negotiations were still on-going the Mexicans fired their guns. read more...
Women workers in a railway office, 1916
When we talk about the female aspects of the First World War, most people think about the cliché: “female takeover”. Thinking about takeover in higher education, at work (whether it was a factory or an office) and takeover on the streets – meaning female conductors, cabbies and street sweepers. It is a fact that the First World War had completely turned women’s life upside down. They took over the position of the head of their families, when their husbands and sons were enlisted. In the absence of the breadwinner, they ensured the daily income – which had to be pursued after work standing in long lines, sometimes even for days. What were the crucial points that clearly changed these women’s lives? This is what I will try to summarize in this piece. read more...
Transylvania and Bucovina, 1915
Romania’s position was always uncertain among the warring countries. With the three allies, Germany, Austria-Hungary she had connections, since she was aiming for certain Russian territories and also as a newly independent state, she feared the large neighbour. However the political movements running at the turn of the century were clearly aiming to get Transylvania back from the Monarchy since they thought of the area as the cradle of the Romanians. read more...
“A couple of gypsies slipped from the barber’s hands without hair, beard and moustache and with this new face they turned to the other gypsies who burst into an indescribable laugh” – this was one of the many ways how Az Est reported on the force enlisting of the gypsies. read more...
Proclamation of the people's republic on 16 November 1918.
It happened a hundred years ago, in July 1916, when Mihály Károlyi resigned from the position as the president of the United Party of Independence and of 1848. With 20 other members he left the Party and set up his own, the Party of Independence and of 1848. He reasoned this in an open letter: he wanted to feel complete “action-freedom” in his peace politics. But the future “Red Earl” had to take a long path until he could “claim himself”. read more...
Mihály Károlyi
It happened a hundred years ago, in July 1916, when Mihály Károlyi resigned from the position as the president of the United Party of Independence and of 1848. With 20 other members he left the Party and set up his own, the Party of Independence and of 1848. He reasoned this in an open letter: he wanted to feel complete “action-freedom” in his peace politics. But the future “Red Earl” had to take a long path until he could “claim himself”. read more...