The Hungarian government shifted towards a more conservative direction in the last year of the world war and sought to moderate the strengthening labour movement. Inspite of this, in the spring of 1918, the central paper of the Social Democrat party, Népszava managed to achieve a change in the exchange of fat tickets, since the previous routine led to an unsustainable situation, queuing at night and at dawn, and even the armed forces were deployed against women "queuing for fat". read more...
Central powers signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Russia on March 3, 1918. Russia lost 780 thousand square kilometres of land and 56 million inhabitants, but made peace temporarily. This supported the consolidation of Bolshevik rule. The Germans won in the short term, but the Bolsheviks strengthened in the long run – for a price though: Brest-Litovsk could also be a symbol of breaking up with the West, the Entente. read more...
On January 8, 1918, US President Woodrow Wilson presented the principles of postwar settlement in his congressional speech. The USA entered the First World War only in 1917,  and thereby Wilson partly also tried to convince the Americans that the United States was fighting for noble purposes. However, only a few of the 14 points of Wilson were implemented and, even so, they were not used for too noble purposes.   read more...
International Women's Day was not always held on March 8, traditions of this this modern-day celebration are extremely complicated. For example, in Hungary, in the last three years of the First World War, celebrations took place on different dates, one of the programmes was even organized on 1 April. read more...
From Soviet times, the birthday of the Red Army was celebrated on February 23, though the first troops started to organize at the end of January 1918. The first military successes were seen at the end of February, when the Soviet-Russian army stopped the advancing Germans before they reached Petersburg. Many of the first commanders of the Red Army died in horrible circumstances – they were not killed by the enemy, but by the system that gained power with their help. read more...
In the last months of the First World War, there was little positive news and little permanent value generated in Hungary. However, the Museum of Fine Arts still held notable exhibitions and employed significant experts, one of whom was appointed to be a (subordinate) director in March 1918, even during these times.  read more...
The government seeking to govern without parliamentary majority, politicians betraying each other, parties being unable to compromise, arrested radicals – such a divided elite would destabilize a state even in peace times, but Hungary started the last year of the First World War with this political apparatus. read more...
It is still debated exactly what has happened, but it is known about the greatest revolt of the Monarchy's navy that in Hungary it was usually remembered reluctantly or in the wrong way – in many cases wrongly involving Horthy. However, in the South Slavic countries, experts have been extensively concerned with the mutiny of sailors even today. read more...
The club room at Aker köz of the atheist-materialist Galilei Circle, perhaps the most significant student association of Hungarian history, founded in 1908, was shut down 100 years ago, in January 1918. The reason was the illegal anti-militarist activity of some Galileists, which the Hungarian state "in trouble" responded to with a strong blow. However, Galilei Circle, reborn in the autumn of 1918, eventually survived "Old Hungary". read more...
Hungarian press was vigorously interested in the real purpose of the leader of the Russian Bolsheviks during the peace negotiations in Brest-Litovsk. An article of Az Est, published in January 1918, depicted a clear picture: it was not the agreement with the Germans that was important to Lenin, but social revolution. read more...
At the beginning of 1918, the Hungarian Ministry of Domestic Affairs wanted to take action to replace wartime blood loss. They primarily wished to persuade American Hungarians to return to their homeland to replace the horrific shortage of people. It is typical that German ship companies sought to grasp the business opportunity – but in vein. read more...
One of the inescapable stories of 1917 was the fall of the Tsarist system and the Russian Revolution. The reaction and the emergence of the Interim Government that replaced the tsarist government, embodying oppression, with the promise of a parliamentary system, created fear and hope at the same time – for all parties at war. read more...