"Schwarzer Tag des deutschen Heeres",  the Black Day of the German Army – this is how Erich Ludendorff, (one of) the supreme leader(s) of the empire characterised 8 August 1918. And this day was only the beginning of the series of attacks called Hundred Days Offensive in German military history launched by the Entente that decided the First World War between August 8 and November 11 in 1918. This latter day was the date of signing the capitulation in Compiègne and of the end of the war.    read more...
The separate peace treaty between the central powers and Romania was signed in Bucharest on May 7, 1918. The agreement was not in force for a long time, it only had one (more) lasting result: the unification of Romania and Bessarabia was recognized by Germany and its three allies, including the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. Pesti Napló wrote in vein after the execution: "today we shall be glad that the people of the Hungarian border could go to sleep in peace in Székelyföld and Saxon towns". read more...
Bulgaria collapsed at the end of September 1918 – this opened the Balkan front for progressing Entente troops. The Bulgarians concluded armistice and left the First World War, which made the loss of the war clear for the German leadership as well. However, the fall of the German Chancellor, Hertling was only the beginning of political changes that took place in central powers.  read more...
The Monarchy's authorities were surprised that in early 1918, before the separate peace with the Bolsheviks, more and more Austrian-Hungarian prisoners of war escaped over the Front and tried to come home. Because of internal social tensions, authorities in Vienna and Budapest took various precautionary measures. The Hungarian Minister of Defence justified why the prisoners of war are placed into a four-week "moral quarantine" after the health care quarantine with an egregious statement:  to "transform them into humans". In fact, authorities were afraid of the spread of Bolshevik ideology - but they could not prevent it: several future leaders of the Hungarian Soviet Republic had been Russian prisoners of war.  read more...
Autumn brought a terrible pandemic for Budapest and the country in 1918. It was the Spanish flu, upon the outbreak of which, in June a part og the Hungarian press made a poor out with their fake news, with belittling the danger, but Pesti Hírlap still lied to their readers even in the most severe moments of the pandemic, in autumn. The responsibility of the government, the capital and the public health authorities is just as severe: they were unable to solve the absence of doctors and medicine and the lack of organization also prevented them from coping with the pandemic, which mainly decimated the population of the back-country, and especially lively young adults from September 1918.  read more...
If we started with a far-fetched joke, perhaps students of the library faculty hate him more than today's right-wing publicists: he was the one to introduce the difficult-to-learn UDC system in Hungary. But he was also the one who introduced the network of public, free libraries in the country. And something he is attacked for even today:  read more...
When it comes to the disintegration of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, in our region, among the main initiators, usually the activities of two Czech politicians, Masaryk and Beneš are pointed out. In Hungarian historical consciousness, the names of some Serbian, Romanian, Slovakian or Croatian contemporary politicians (Trumbić, Pašić, Štefánik, Braţianu) may also be recalled. However, the role of Slovenes is almost completely forgotten.  read more...
It all started like a bar fight by Jenő Rejtő: the other hit back. In April 1918, the Foreign Minister of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy came into a debate confuting  each other with the French Prime Minister, Clemenceau, which made it clear that Czernin had made a fatal mistake. He accused France of sticking to Alsace-Lorraine and refusing to accept peace for this reason. read more...
In July and August 1918, public supply deteriorated so badly that the lack of basic foods grew to such an extent that there were riots even in several rural settlements. Mostly demonstrations and actions of women queuing or not even queuing (because there was nothing to wait for) triggered panic among local leaders. read more...
Though in June 1918 Pesti Hírlap still published reassuring news about the alleged remission of the Spanish influenza pandemic, later named Spanish flu, a month later authorities admitted that the disease had appeared in the Hungarian capital as well. As it later turned out, the majority of contemporary news depicted the reality much better, and the flu caused mass illnesses around the world. In Budapest, in the summer of 1918, the virus, which had mainly infected soldiers and prisoners of war, already spread among the civilian population too. read more...
„The death notice of capitalism” – this is how, at the beginning of the fifth year of the war, Népszava described the series of data published by the German Wolff news agency. Wishful thinking – the paper wished for this indeed: they wished for writing the death notice of capitalism. But regardless of how much the majority of left-wingers waited for the collapse of capitalism in the 20th century, it did not disappear from the scene even despite the most brutal bloodsheds – either after World War I, or after World War II. read more...
140-150 thousand soldiers of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy were killed, imprisoned or wounded senselessly in the days after June 15, 1918, in northern Italy along Piave. The last attack of the Austro-Hungarian army in the World War was broken down for several reasons: one of the main factors was the disintegration of the hinterland. read more...